Search This Blog

Sunday, 30 May 2021

Difference between a tuple and collection in scala


Difference between Tuple and Collections in Scala :

1. Tuple store heterogenous data, means it can store different data types at a time. Where as collection stores same data type.

2. If we want to return two values from a function, lets say, we would like to return 1 and "Scala" at a time from a function we can use Tuple.

3. At max tuple can store 22 elements, But Collection can store more than 22 elements ( No restriction).

Wednesday, 5 May 2021

Differences between creation of string in java string s = "abc" and String s= new String("abc")



String s = “abc”

String s = new String(“abc”)


Creation of string literals are the preferred way in java

At times, we may wish to create separate instance for each separate string in memory. We can create one string object per string value using new keyword.

If we create many strings with same char sequence assume

String s = “abc”

String s1 =”abc”

String s2 = “abc”

All these variables will have same reference, we will not create the string again with same value in memory , this will save lot of memory in runtime.

If we create

String s = new String(“abc”)

String s1 = new String(“abc”)

String s2 = new String(“abc”), then we will create different objects/instances in heap memory.

The strings that are created with string literals are stored in special memory in heap memory called string pool. String literals are stored in String pool, a special memory area created by JVM

The strings created with new operator will be stored in heap memory but not in string pool


String s1 =”abc”, If we try to create same object , will have the reference of first string stored in string pool Which is existing in pool already.

String s1= new string (“abc”)

String s2 = new String (“abc”)

Different objects with different references will be created in heap momory.


String literals are stored in string pool

String objects are stored in head memory.


A string constant pool is a separate place in the heap memory where the values of all the strings which are defined in the program are stored.

When we declare a string, an object of type String is created in the stack, while an instance with the value of the string is created in the heap











String str1 = "Hello";




String str1 = "Hello";
String str2 = "Hello";






String str1 = "Hello";
String str2 = "Hello";
String str3 = "Class";



String str1 = new String("John");
String str2 = new String("Doe");





Wednesday, 28 September 2016

SingleTon Pattern, how can we restrict in serialization to create multiple objects

SingleTon Pattern :

Questions will be anserwed in this post
What is Singleton
Why do we need SingleTon
How can a class behaves singleTon
How can we fail singleton concept through serialization, how can we solve it..

For a given class, if only one instance needs to be created, we will go for this pattern.
why is SingleTon needed :  there are some requirements, where only one class needs to be created, for example, database connection object,
for an application, only one database is needed, for this kind of situations, we go for singleTon.

 If we restrict constructor as private , no one can create object,
 instead provide one method to give instance, this method will create a object if it didnt exists, else creates object and returns it.
 public class SingleObject {

   //create an object of SingleObject
   private static SingleObject instance = new SingleObject();

   //make the constructor private so that this class cannot be
   private SingleObject(){}

   //Get the only object available
   public static SingleObject getInstance(){
      return instance;

   public void showMessage(){
      System.out.println("Hello World!");

Through Serialization, lets say we need to serialize singleTon class, and deserialize n number of times , you can get n number of objects, which is failing singleTon principle, How can we restrict this

In order to make serialization and singleton work properly,we have to introduce readResolve() method in the singleton class.readResolve() method lets developer control what object should be returned  on deserialization.
For the current SingleObject singleton class,readResolve() method will look like this.

  * Special hook provided by serialization where developer can control what object needs to sent.
  * However this method is invoked on the new object instance created by de serialization process.
  * @return
  * @throws ObjectStreamException
 private Object readResolve() throws ObjectStreamException{
  return INSTANCE;
You need to implement readResolve method in your Singleton class. This small thing is used to override what serialization mechanism has created. What you return there will be used instead of data that came from serialization
 but readResolve will work properly only if all fields are transient,

The best way to do this is to use the enum singleton pattern:

public enum SingleObject {

more details will be posted further

Tuesday, 27 September 2016

Different ways of creating an Object in Java

Here are the 5 different ways to create object in Java,
1. new Operator
2. Using Class.forName("class").newInstance()
3.Using de serialization  (by using ObjectInputstream readObject method)
4.using clone method
5.using newInstance method.

package com.test.objectcreation;


public class Add implements Cloneable {
    public int number = 1;

    public int add(int a, int b) {
        return a + b;

    public int change() {
        number = 2;
        return number;

    public static void main(String args[]) throws InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException,
            CloneNotSupportedException, ClassNotFoundException, IOException {
        Add add = new Add(); // creation of object with new operator
        System.out.println(add.add(2, 3));

        Add a = Add.class.newInstance();// creation of object with newInstance
                                        // method
        // System.out.println(a.getName());
        // System.out.println(a.getMethod("add", "2","3"));
        System.out.println(a.add(2, 3));
        Add b = (Add) a.clone(); // creation of object using clone, Class needs to implement clonenable, otherwise you  will get clonenotsupportedException and you need to typecast to class to which you need to clone.
        System.out.println(b.add(2, 3));
        System.out.println("static int in object a :" + a.number);
        System.out.println("static int in object b (cloned object) :" + b.number);
        FileInputStream fileIn = new FileInputStream("/E/Add.txt");
        ObjectInputStream in = new ObjectInputStream(fileIn);// here reading serializable object which stored in add.txt file, we are creating Add  classinstance,used mostly for deserialization.

        Add e = (Add) in.readObject();// reading object and type casting.

        Class s = Class.forName("com.test.objectcreation.Add");// using forName
        Add obj = (Add) s.newInstance(); // we are creating object from Object s


Wednesday, 9 March 2016

How can we call Function in Scala

Here are couple of scala points

  • You can call a function without using . operator example : emp getName , Here emp is the object getName is function, just by giving space you can call the function.
  • No need to provide braces after the function Name, unlike in java we use paranthesis (getName()).

Wednesday, 9 December 2015

Ignore JUnit Test Case

How can we stop a test case not to run??

Dont use java comment to comment the test case function,
Please use @Ignore annotation to comment test case,


on function level

@Ignore("not ready yet")
@Test public void testOnething() {
System.out.println("This method is ignored because its not ready yet");

on class level

@Ignore public class Ignored {
@Test public void test1() {
System.out.println("Ignored test case 1");
@Test public void test2() {
System.out.println("Ignored test case 2");

Monday, 7 December 2015

How to turn off interactive prompt while sending bulk files to an ftp server

When we want to send 1000 number of files at a time to an ftp server,

We will use mput *, but for every file it will ask you to enter yes or no to transfer the file,
to avoid this,
use command prompt.

Example below

ftp hostname
username : username
password : password
prompt (this will turn off interactive mode)

now you use mput * to send all files .